Early medieval



Aner, E. (1952), 'Das Kammergräberfeld von Haithabu', Offa 10, 61-115


Anstee, J. (1956), 'Mounds on Seasalter Level', Arch. Cant. 70, 55-57


Arbman, H., (1939) Birka, Sveriges äldsta handelsstad, Stockholm


Ayers, B. and Murphy, P., (1983) 'Waterfront Excavation at Whitefriars Street Car Park, Norwich, 1979'. East Anglian Archæology No.17, 23-28, 60


Blindheim, C. (1959) Osebergskoene på ny', Viking 23, 71-86


Cameron, C. and Mould, Q. 2011 ‘Devil’s Crafts and Dragon’s Skins? Sheaths, Shoes and Other Leatherwork’. In Clegg Hyer, C. and Owen-Crocker, G. R. (eds.) The Material Culture of Daily Living in the Anglo-Saxon World, 93-115. Exeter, University of Exeter Press


Cameron, E. (1998) Leather and Fur: Aspects of Early Medieval Trade and Technology, London


Cameron, E. (1998) 'Pre-conquest Leather on English Book-bindings, Arms and Armour, AD400-1100', in Cameron, E. (ed) Leather and Fur, London, 45-56


Cameron, E. (2000) Sheaths and Scabbards in England AD400-1100, British Archaeological Report 301, Oxford


Cameron, E. and Edwards, G. (2004) Evidence of leather on finds from Anglo-Saxon cemeteries at St Stephen’s Lane/Buttermarket, Ipswich, Suffolk 1987-88 and Boss Hall, Ipswich 1990, English Heritage Centre for Archaeology Report, Portsmouth


Cameron, E. and Mould, Q. (2004) 'Saxon shoes, Viking sheaths? Cultural identity in Anglo-Scandinavian York', in J. Hines; A. Lane and M. Redknap (eds.) Land, Sea and Home, Leeds, Society for Medieval Archaeology Monographs 20, 457-466


Crowfoot, E. and Hawkes, S.C. (1967) 'Early Anglo-Saxon Gold Braids' Medieval Archæology II, 48,59


Driel-Murray, C. van (2005) ‘Nieuwe schoenen uit een oude put: ledervondsten

uit Wijster’, Nieuwe Drentse Volksalmanak 122, 140-151 (Early 5th century shoes from Wijster)


Dowker,G. (1887) 'A Saxon Cemetery at Wickhambreux', Archaeologia Cantiana 17, 6


East, K. (1983) 'The Shoes', in Bruce-Mitford, R. et al., The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial III, London


Ellis Davidson, H.R. and Webster, L. (1967) 'The Anglo-Saxon Burial at Coombe (Woodnesborough), Kent', Medieval Archæology 11, pp 12,17, (1-41)


Evans A. C. (2004) 'The Saddle in Anglo-Saxon England and its European Background', in  L.Gilmour (ed) In the Saddle. An exploration of the saddle through history, London, 21-30


Gräf, J. (2008) 'Die Lederfunde aus dem Thorsberger Moor' in A. Abegg-Wigg and  A. Rau (eds.), Aktuelle Forschungen zu Kriegsbeuteopfern und Fürstengräbern im Barbaricum: Konferenz Schleswig 2006 [Current research on the spoils of war victims and princely graves in Barbaricum: Schleswig Conference 2006],  Schriften des Archäologischen Landesmuseums Ergänzungsreihe 4, Neumünster, 215-229

Gräf, J. (2008) 'Schuhe aus dem Moor - Schuhfunde im Landesmuseum für Natur und Mensch Oldenburg' Museumsjournal Natur und Mensch 2008/4,  Oldenburg, 53-70


Gräf, J. (2011) 'Die Entwicklung der Gerberei am Übergang von der Spätantike zum Frühen Mittelalter' [Tannery development at the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages] in T. Panhuysen (ed.), Transformations in North-Western Europe (AD 300-1000), Proceedings of the 60th Sachsensymposion, 19-23 September 2009, Maastricht. Neue Studien zur Sachsenforschung 3, Stuttgart, 37-46


Gräf, J. (2015) 'Die Lederfunde aus dem Thorsberger Moor' in C. von Carnap-Bornheim (ed.), Das Thorsberger Moor Band 4: Fund- und Forschungsgeschichte, naturwissenschaftliche und materialkundliche Untersuchungen, Schleswig, 231-345 [important Roman Iron Age and later Germanic leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog in Schleswig-Holstein]

Goubitz, O. (1996-97)  'Eight Exceptional Medieval Shoes from the Netherlands' Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodermonderzoek, Jaargang 42, 425-445


Groenman-van Waateringe, W. (1974) 'A Carolingian shoe from Medemblik.' in appendix to J. C. Besteman, 'Carolingian Medemblik.' Berichten van de Rijksdient voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek 24, 99


Groenman-van Waateringe, W. (1976) 'Schuhe aus Wijk bij Duurstede.' Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek 26, 189-197


Groenman-van Waateringe, W. (1978) 'De spaarzame of fantasieloze(?) schoenmaker.' Spiegel Historiael 13, 263-266.


Groenman-van Waateringe, W. (1981a) 'Leder von der Grabung Grosser Schlichtenberg.' In: I. Ericsson, Futterkampf I, Neumünster, 208-210.


Groenman-van Waateringe, W. (1981b) 'The Leather from Ditch 1', in Barber, J. W. 'Excavations on Iona, 1979', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 111, 318-328


Groenman-van Waateringe, W. (1984) 'Die Lederfunde von Haithabu', Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 2, Neumünster


Groenman-van Waateringe, W. (1988) 'Das Leder von Alt-Lübeck.' Lübecker Schriften zur Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte 13, 141-154


Hassell, T.G.(1972) Oxford, The City Beneath your Feet, Oxford Archæological Committee


Henchen, H. (1942) 'Leather Objects, Ballinderry Crannog No. 2', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 47, Ch l


Hencken, H. (1950) 'Leather from Lagore Crannog', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 53, Ch 1


Hendriks, A. (1964) 'Karolingisch Shoeisel uit Middelburg', in Trimpe Burger, J.A. 'Een Ouheidkundig Onzerzoek in de Aldij te Middelburg in 1961', Berichten Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek 14, 112-116


Hills, C. (1977) 'Chamber Grave from Spong Hill, North Elmham, Norfolk',  Medieval Archaeology 21, pp 170, 174 (illustration)


Hlaváček, P. and Stýbrová, M. (2009) 'Footwear of the Ancient Slavs - An Attempt to Reconstruct Footwear of the Great Moravian Nobility' in Obuv v Historii (The Shoes in History) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference, 2007, Zlín (Czech Republic) ISBN 978-80-87130-07


Howard-Johnston, J. (1998) 'Trading in Fur, from Classical Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages' in Cameron, E. (ed) Leather and Fur, London, 65-79


Jankuhn, H. (1963) Haithabu, ein Handelsplatz der Wikingerzeit  Neumünster


Larsen, A.J. (1970) 'Skomaterialet fra Utgravningene i Borgund på Sunnmøre 1954-1962', Arbok for Universitetet i Bergen.  Humanistisk Serie 1, Bergen Oslo, Linkopings Stads Museum Berättelse 1948, 13-14


Lewis, R. (2005) ‘The history, conservation and re-interpretation of SF105, the satchel’ in Crone, A. and Campbell, E. A Crannog of the First Millennium AD: Excavations by Jack Scott at Loch Glashan, Argyll, 1960, Edinburgh, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 81-85


Llindahl, A., 'En Handelsbod Från 1600 - Talet På Stora Torget i Linkoping', Linkopings Stads Museum Berättelse 1948, 10-12


Lucas, A.T. (1956) 'Footwear in Ireland', The Journal of the County Louth Archæological Society 13 No.4, 309-391


MacGregor, A. (1978) 'Industry and Commerce in Anglo-Scandinavian York', in Hall, R.A. (ed) Viking Age York and the North  C.B.A. Research Report 27, London, 54


MacGregor, A. (1982) 'Anglo-Scandinavian Finds from Lloyds Bank, Pavement and Other Sites', The Archæology of York 17


MacGregor, A. (1998) 'Hides, Horns and Bones: Animals and Interdependent Industries in the Early Urban Context' in Cameron, E. (ed) Leather and Fur, London, 11-26


Mason, D. (1985) 26-42 Lower Bridge Street 1974-76: the Dark Age and Saxon Periods, Grosvenor Museum Archæological Excavation and Survey Report 3


Meehan, B. (2005) ‘Book satchels in medieval Scotland and Ireland’ in

Crone, A. and Campbell, E. A Crannog of the First Millennium AD: Excavations by Jack Scott at Loch Glashan, Argyll, 1960, Edinburgh, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 85-92


Moens J. (2012)  'Vroegmiddeleeuws leer uit het archeologisch onderzoek The Loop in Sint-Denijs-Westrem (prov. Oost-Vlaanderen)', Rapporten leeronderzoek, RL.OE.2012-1. [Early medieval leather from a large development, The Loop, in the suburbs of Ghent] available online:




Moens J. (2014) ‘Een vroegmiddeleeuws schoen uit een waterput te Merendree (Prov. Oost-Vlaanderen)’, Rapporten leeronderzoek, Brussel. available online:



Montembault, V. (1998) 'The Leather Finds from Rouen and Saint-Denis, France' in

Cameron, E. (ed) Leather and Fur, London, 57-64


Mould, Q., Carlisle, I. and Cameron, E. (2003) Leather and Leather-working in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York, The Archaeology of York AY17/16


Mould, Q. and Richardson, B. (2013) ‘The Leather’ in Fowler, L. and Taylor, R. At the limits of Lundenwic: excavations in the north-west of Middle Saxon London at St Martin’s Courtyard, 2007-8, Museum of London Archaeology, Archaeology Studies Series 27, 93-6


Owen-Crocker, Gale, R. (1986) Dress in Anglo-Saxon England, Manchester, University Press


Owen-Crocker, G. (1998) 'The Search for Anglo-Saxon Skin Garments and the Documentary Evidence' in Cameron, E. (ed) Leather and Fur, London, 27-43     


Reichstein, H. (1969) 'Untersuchengen von Gweihresten des Rothirsches (cervus elaphus L.) aus der Frühmittelalterlichen siedelung Haithabu (Ausgrabung 1964)',  Berichte übe die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 2, 57-71


Reichstein, H. (1974) 'Ergebrisse un Probleme von Untersuchengen an Wildtieren aus Haithabu (Augrabung 1963-1964)', Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 7, 103-144


Reichstein, H. and Teissen, M. (1974) 'Ergebrisse Neurer Untersuchungen an Haustierknochen aus Haithabu (Ausgrabungen 1963-1964)', Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 7, 9-101


Rhodes, M. (1980) 'Leather' in Jones, D. and Rhodes, M. 'Excavations at Billingsgate Buildings 'Triangle', Lower Thames Street, 1974', London and Middlesex Archæological Society Special Paper 4, 141


Sanders, G.B. and Armstrong P. (1983) 'Watching Brief on the Beverley High Level Drainage Scheme', East Riding Archæologist 7, 58, 66-69


Schia, E. (1980) 'Skofunn in Uvdal Stavkirke', Uni Oldsaksamlings Skrifter 3, Oslo, 81-86


Schietzel, K. (1975) 'Haithabu. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklung Frühstädtischer Siedlungsformen Nordeuropas', Ausgrabungen in Deutschland 3,  Monographien des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums l, Mainz, 57-71


Spriggs, J. (1998) 'The British Beaver - Fur, Fact and Fantasy' in Cameron, E. (ed) Leather and Fur, London, 91-101


Strutt, J. (1842) A Complete view of the Dress and Habits of the People of England From the Establishment of the Saxons in Britain (2nd edition) London


Swann, J. (1983) 'The Leather' in Williams, J.H. and Farwell, D. 'Excavations on a Saxon Site in St James' Square, Northampton, 1981',  Northamptonshire Archæology 18, 150, fiche 25-28


Swann, J. (1984) 'Leather' in Rogerson and Dallas 'Excavations at Thetford',  East Anglian Archæology Report 22


Tempel, W.D. (1970) 'Die Kämme aus Haithabu (Ausgrabungen 1963-1964)', Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 4, 34-45


Thomas, C. (2005) ‘The leather assemblage’ in Crone, A. and Campbell, E. A Crannog of the First Millennium AD: Excavations by Jack Scott at Loch Glashan, Argyll, 1960, Edinburgh, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 72-80


Thomson, R. (1998) 'Leather working processes' in Cameron, E.(ed) Leather and Fur, London, 1-9


Thornton, J. H. and Goodfellow, A.V. (1958) 'Leather Shoes', in Stead, I. M. 'Excavations at South Corner Tower Roman Fortress, York 1956', Yorkshire Archæological Journal 39, 525-30


Thornton, J. H. (1969) 'Leather', in Addyman, P.V. 'Late Saxon Settlement in the St. Neots Area', Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society 62, 91


Thornton, J. H. (1977) 'Leatherwork' in Durham, B. 'Investigations in St. Aldates, Oxford', Oxoniensia 42, 155-160


Thornton, J.H. (1979) 'Leather Artifacts and Manufacture' in Carver, M.O.H.  'Three Saxo-Norman Tenements in Durham City', Medieval Archæology 23, 5, 26-36


Ullemeyer, R. (1970) 'Textil un Lederfunde aus Haithabu (Augrabungen 1963-1964)', Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 4, 56-68


Veldmeijer, A. J. and Endenburg, E (2008) ‘Footwear from Qasr Ibrim’, Egyptian Archaeology (Bulletin of the Egypt Exploration Society) 33, Autumn, 18-20 [a preliminary report, beautifully illustrated, which describes footwear from Roman, early Christian and Ottoman levels. These include leather shoes, wooden pattens and sandals made from basketry and palm leaves/fibres.]


Veldmeijer, A.J. (2012) Sandals, shoes and other leatherwork from the Coptic Monastery Deir el-Bachit: Analysis and Catalogue, Leiden, Sidestone Press. This

volume can be browsed online or purchased complete as an e-book:




Vince, A. (ed) (1991) Aspects of Saxon and Norman London 2: finds and environmental evidence, London. Includes artefacts of wood and leather from waterfronts and pit deposits.


Vince, A. and Mould, Q. with Riddler, I. (2007) ‘New thoughts on the chronology of Saddler Street, Durham: pottery, leatherwork and some implications’, Archaeologia Aeliana 36, 79-92


Wigh, B. (1998) 'Animal Bones from the Viking Town of Birka, Sweden' in Cameron, E. (ed) Leather and Fur, London, 81-90


Wiklak, H. (1969) 'Polskie Obuwie Wczesnósredniowieczne z VIII-XIII W na podstawie wykopalisk',  ('Polish Early Medieval Footwear of the 8th-13th Centuries on the Basis of Excavation') Materiay Wczesnósredniowieczne 6, 475-517