Conservation

 

 

 

Bonnot-Diconne, C. et al. (2010) ‘Historical and Methodological Aspects of the Restoration of a 18th century French Gilt Leather Tapestry in an Historic House: the Maison Mantin project (Moulins, France)’,  ICOM-CC Interim Meeting, Rome (Leather and Related Materials Working Group)

 

Calnan, C. (1991) Conservation of Leather in Transport Collections, United Kingdom Institute for Conservation

 

Canadian Heritage (1993) 'Removing mould from leather', Canadian Conservation Institute Notes 8/1

 

Canadian Heritage (1992) 'Care of alum, vegetable, and mineral tanned leather', Canadian Conservation Institute Notes 8/2

 

Canadian Heritage (1988) 'Care of mounted specimens and pelts', Canadian Conservation Institute Notes 8/3

 

Canadian Heritage (1992) 'Care of rawhide and semi-tanned leather', Canadian Conservation Institute Notes 8/4

 

Carlsson, M. (1980) 'Konservering av vådt arkeologisk laeder - forskjellige metoder og principper' in Konservering og restaurering af laeder, skind og pergament. Copenhagen School of Conservation, pp. 165-197

 

Chapman, V.(1987) 'The conservation of a group of North American Indian moccasins' in J. Black (comp.) Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, University of London

 

Chiotasso, L. and Sarnelli, C. (1998) ‘Conservation of a Leather Antependium’,  Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Leatherworking Group, Brussels

 

Cooper, M; Sportun, S; Stewart, A; Vest, M; Larsen, R. and Poulsen, D. (2000) 'Laser cleaning of an eighteenth-century parchment document', The Conservator 24, 71-79

 

Cronyn, J. (1990) The Elements of Archaeological Conservation, London

 

Cruickshank, P. (2001) ‘Leather shrouds¼a rare find in Jordan’, in B.Wills (ed), Leather Wet and Dry: Current Treatments in the Conservation of Waterlogged and Desiccated Archaeological Leather, London, 63-70

 

David, A. E. (1981) 'Freeze-drying leather with glycerol', Museums Journal 81 (2), 103-4

 

Degrigny, C., Baron, G., Christodoulou, P., Tran, K. and Hiron, X. (2002) ‘Conservation of a collection of waterlogged composite rifles dating from the 17th century recovered from the Brescou ll marine site’ in  Hoffman, P., Spriggs, J., Grant, T., Cook, C. and Recht, A. (eds)  Proceedings of the 8th ICOM Group on Wet Organic Archaeological Materials Conference, Stockholm, 2001 Bremerhaven, 399-412

 

Dienst, E. van (1985) 'Some remarks on the conservation of wet archaeological leather', Studies in Conservation 30 (2), 86-92

 

Dignard, C. and Dumka, H. (1986) 'The effect of conservation treatments on the shrinkage temperature of wet archaeological leather', Conservation Training Programs Student Papers, Twelfth Annual Conference, Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York, 39-53

 

Edwards, G. and Mould, Q. (comp.) (1995) Guidelines for the care of waterlogged archaeological leather, English Heritage Scientific and Technical Publications Guideline 4

 

Ganiaris, H; Keene, S. and Starling, K. (1982) 'A comparison of some treatments for excavated leather', The Conservator  6, 12-23

 

Godfrey, I., Kasi, K. and Richards, V. (2002) ‘Iron removal from waterlogged leather and rope recovered from shipwreck sites’ in Hoffman, P., Spriggs, J., Grant, T., Cook, C. and Recht, A.(eds) Proceedings of the 8th ICOM Group on Wet Organic Archaeological Materials Conference, Stockholm, 2001, Bremerhaven, 439-467

 

Goubitz, O. (1982) 'The cleaning of archaeological objects with an ultrasonic probe.' Conservation News. (United Kingdom Institute for Conservation of Historic  and Artistic Works), 8-10

 

Goubitz, O. (1997) ‘What is wrong with freeze-drying?’, in P.Hallebeek (ed) ICOM Working Group on the Treatment of and Research into Leather, in Particular of Ethnographic Objects, (Interim Meeting, Amsterdam, April 1995) Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage, 36-37

 

Goubitz, O. and Offerman, K. (1981) 'The conservation and restoration of a sixteenth-century leather jerkin.' Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek, 31, 453-463.

 

Graham, K. and Karsten, A. (2009) ‘The leather drying trial. A comparative study of various impregnation and drying methods for waterlogged archaeological leather’, English Heritage Research News 12, 26-28, online at:

 

http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/research-news-12/researchnews12.pdf/

 

Hallebeek, P.B.(ed) (1986) ‘Ethnographic and Waterlogged Leather’, Proceedings

of the ICOM-CC Leathercraft and Related Objects Working Group Meeting, Amsterdam. Amsterdam, CL Publications (Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science)

 

Hanacziwskyj, P; Horie, C.V. and Shuttleworth, C.A. (1989) 'Hydrothermal isometric tension apparatus and its application to the study of thermal stability of preserved Red deer skin', Journal of the Society of Leather Technicians and Chemists 73, 105-9

 

Horie, C.V. (1990) 'Deterioration of skin in museum collections', Polymer Degradation and Stability 29, 109-33

 

Horie, C.V. (1992) 'Conservation and storage: leather objects' in Thompson, J. (ed) Manual of Curatorship, 340-345

 

Jenssen, V. (1987) 'Conservation of wet organic artefacts excluding wood' in Pearson, C. (ed) Conservation  Of Marine Archaeological Objects, London, 122-163

 

Julien, S. (2000) 'Saving our skins: long-term care of masks from the Cross River region', Journal of Museum Ethnography 12, pp.115-124

(deals with carved wooden masks covered in animal skin, from Nigeria)

 

Karsten, A., Graham, K., Jones, J., Mould, M. and Rogers, P. (2012)

Waterlogged Organic Artefacts – Guidelines on their Recovery, Analysis and Conservation London, English Heritage The Guidelines are available as a free pdf download from:

 

http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/waterlogged-organic-artefacts/

 

Keller, H. (1986) ‘Restoration of a Roman Leather Helmet with Ear-Muffs’ (summary), ICOM Symposium on Ethnographic and Waterlogged Leather, Amsterdam, 4-6.

 

Kite, M. and Thomson, R. (2005) Conservation of Leather and Related Materials, Elsevier, London (includes a chapter on archaeological leather)

 

Klokkernes, T. (2007) Skin processing technology in Eurasian reindeer cultures. A comparative study in material science of Sàmi and Evenk methods – perspectives on deterioration and preservation of museum artefacts, Oslo, Museum of Cultural History. "The objective of this study is to characterise and identify skin processing technology in Eurasian reindeer cultures and to study the impact these methods and tanning substances have on the preservation potential

of the artefacts."

The book is available online as a .pdf file via a link on this page:

 

http://www.langelandsmuseum.dk/LMR%20Press.htm

 

Kozlowski, R. and Adamowicz, J. (1998) ‘Flattening in-situ gilt leather wall hangings’,  Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Leatherworking Group, Brussels

 

Larsen, R.(1994) 'Deterioration and conservation of vegetable tanned leather' in R. Larsen (ed) Research Report No.1:STEP Leather Project, Copenhagen: European Commission, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, and The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation, 165-79

 

Larsen, R. (1995) 'The mechanisms of deterioration' in Fundamental Aspects of the Deterioration of Vegetable Tanned Leathers, unpublished PhD thesis. The Royal Danish Academy of fine Arts, School of Conservation, Copenhagen

 

Larsen, R. (1996) 'Deterioration and conservation of vegetable tanned leather' in Larsen, R. (ed) Research Report No.6 Environment Leather Project. Copenhagen: European Commission, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, and The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation, 167-87

 

Leather Conservation Centre (1982) Leather Conservation: A Current Survey, Northampton

 

Leather Conservation Centre (1985) Fungicides used on Leather, Northampton

 

Montembault, V. (1987a) 'La conservation des cuirs archéologiques gorgés d'eau au Centre d'Étude et de Traitement des Bois Gorgés d'Eau', Colloque Conservation-Restoration of Leather and Wood: Training of Restorers, Budapest, 299-307

 

Montembault, V. (1987b) 'La restauration du cuir archéologique', Colloque Conservation-Restauration des Biens Culturels: Recherches et Techniques actuelles, Paris, 36-45

 

Montembault, V. (1992) 'La restauration du cuir archéologique'

 

Montembault, V. (1993) 'La reproduction d'objets archéologiques en cuir', Bulletin De Liaison 11, 'Moulages, copies, fac-similés', Actes des IX èmes journées des restaurateurs en archéologie, Soissons 14 et 15 juin 1993, Paris, 145-7

 

Montembault, V. (2001) ‘Treatments of archaeological leather in France’ in B. Wills (ed) Leather Wet and Dry, 45-50

 

Montembault, V; Daniel, P. and de La Baume, S. (1996) 'Traitement et étude d'une chaussure de femme découverte dans le fossé de l'enceinte de Philoppe Auguste 30, rue du Cardinal Lemoine (Paris Vº arr.)', Cahiers de la Rotonde 17, 53-6

 

Montembault, V. and Bouthier, A. (1998) 'L'étude et le remontage des pièces archéologiques: l'exemple d'une chaussure de Cosne-sur-Loire (Nièvre)', Coré 4, 21-3

 

Morris, K. and Seife, L. (1978) 'Conservation of leather and textiles from the Defense 1779', Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 18 (1)

 

Morrison, L. (1986) 'The conservation of seal-gut parkas', The Conservator 10, 17-24

 

Muhlethaler, B. et al (1973) The conservation of waterlogged wood and wet leather, ICOMOS, Paris

 

Newton, C. (1990) 'Udder headdress', Canadian Conservation Institute Newsletter, CCI Communications Canada, 5-6

 

Omar, S., McCord, M. and Daniels, V. (1989) ‘The conservation of bog bodies by freeze-drying’, Studies in Conservation 34, 101-109

 

O'Shea, C. (1971) 'The use of de-watering fluids in the conservation of waterlogged wood and leather', Museums Journal 71

 

Painter, T. (1991a) ‘Preservation in peat’, Chemistry and Industry (fortnightly magazine) for 17th June, 421-424

 

Painter, T. (1991b) ‘Lindow Man, Tollund Man and other peat-bog bodies: the preservation and antimicrobial action of spagnan, a reactive glycuronoglycan with tanning and sequestering properties’, Carbohydrate Polymers 15, 123-142

 

 

Peacock, E.E. (1983) 'The conservation and restoration of some Anglo-Scandinavian shoes', The Conservator 7, UKIC, 18-23

 

Peacock, E.E. (1984) 'Mass reconservation of archaeological leather: a case study', ICOM Committee for Conservation, 7th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen, 10-14 September 1984, Paris, 122-5

 

Peacock, E.E. (1987a) 'Archaeological skin materials' in Hodges, H. (ed) In-Situ Archaeological Conservation, Instituto Nacionale de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico) and J. Paul Getty Trust, Century City, pp. 122-131. Also published in Spanish, 1993, Santa Monica.

 

Peacock, E.E. (1987b) 'Freeze-drying wet archaeological leather'/'Frysetørring av vått arkeologisk laer', Meddelelser om Konservering 4, 11-14. In Norwegian.

 

Peacock, E.E. and Saeterhaug, R. (1993) 'Conservation of wet archaeological wood and leather', Novgorod i norgordskaja zemlja i storija i arkeologija 7, 219-226. In Russian

 

Peacock, E.E. (1999) 'Leather, archaeological: on-site conservation' in Ellis, L. (ed) Archaeological Method and Theory: An Encyclopedia, New York

 

Peacock, E.E. (2001) 'Water-degraded archaeological leather: an overview of treatments used at Vitenskapsmuseum (Trondheim)' in Wills, B. (ed) Leather Wet and Dry: Current Treatments in the Conservation of Waterlogged and Desiccated Archaeological Leather, London, 11-25

 

Peacock, E. F. (2005) ‘Conservation of severely degraded wet archaeological leather recovered from the Norwegian Arctic. Preliminary results’, in P. Hoffmann, J. A. Spriggs, K. Strætkvern and D. Gregory Proceedings of the 9th ICOM Group on Wet Organic Archaeological Materials Conference Copenhagen 2004, Bremerhaven, ICOM-CC WOAM, 565-578

Peacock, E. F. (2007) ‘The contribution of X-radiography to the conservation and study of textile/leather composite archaeological footwear recovered from the Norwegian Arctic’, in S. O’Connor and M. M. Brooks X-radiography of Textiles, Dress and Related Objects, Oxford, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 294-301

 

Plenderleith, H. J. and Werner, A. E. (1971) The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, second edition, London, 21-43

 

Raphael, T. and McCrady, E. (1984) 'Leather dressing: a misguided tradition?', de Froment, D. (ed) preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 7th Triennial Meeting, Paris, 84.18.6

 

Raphael, T.(1993) 'The care of leather and skin products: a curatorial guide', Leather Conservation News 9, 1-15

 

Rosenquist, A. M. (1975) 'Experiments on the conservation of waterlogged wood and leather by freeze-drying', in Oddy, W. A. (ed) Problems of the Conservation of Wood, Greenwich

 

Scheifler, L. (1985) 'Waterlogged leather' in Fogle, S. (ed) Recent Advances in Leather Conservation, Washington DC, 64-66

 

Segal, M. and MacDonald, M. (1984) 'Current research into the conservation of frozen skins from the arctic', de Froment, D. (ed) preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 7th Triennial Meeting, Paris, 84.18.14-15

 

Spriggs, J. (1987) ‘Aspects of leather conservation at York’ in Friendship-Taylor, D., Swann, J. and Thomas, S. (eds) Recent Research in Archaeological Footwear, AAI&S Tech. Paper 8, 43-46

 

Spriggs, J. (2003) ‘Conservation of the leatherwork’ in Mould, Q., Carlisle, I. and Cameron, E. Leather and Leather-working in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York, The Archaeology of York AY17/16, 3213-3221

 

Stambolov, T. (1969) 'Manufacture, deterioration and preservation of leather: a literature survey of theoretical aspects and ancient techniques' in ICOM Preprints 2nd Triennial Meeting (Amsterdam), ICOM Committee for Conservation, Paris

 

Stambolov, T. (1984) 'Conservation of leathercraft',  Pre-Prints, I.C.O.M. Conservation Committee, Copenhagen

 

Starling. K, (1987) ‘The conservation of wet metal/organic composite archaeological artefacts at the Museum of London’ in MacLeod, I. (ed) Conservation of Wet Wood and Metal,  Proceedings of the ICOM Conservation Working Group on Wet Organic Archaeological Materials and Metals, Fremantle, ICOM, 215-219

 

Stone, T. (1989) 'The conservation of skin (from Eskimo and Indian cultures) and semi-tanned leather at the Canadian Conservation Institute: three case histories', in Leather and Parchment, Procs. ICOM-CC Leathercraft and Related Objects Working Group Meeting Offenbach-am-Main. Offenbach-am-Main: Deutsches Ledermuseum, 228-42

 

Storch, P. (1997) ‘Non-vacuum freeze-dry treatment of two leather objects’, Leather Conservation News 13/2, Minnesota Hist. Soc/ICOM, 15-17

 

Sturge, J. (1973) The Conservation of Wet Leather, unpublished dissertation for the Diploma in Conservation, Institute of Archaeology, London

 

Sturman, S. (1984) 'Sorbitol treatment of leather and skin: a preliminary report', de Froment, D. (ed) preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 7th Triennial Meeting, Paris, 84.18.22-25

 

Sully, D. M. (1992) ‘Humidification: the reshaping of leather, skin and gut objects for display’, in Hallebeek, P., Kite, M. and Calnan, C. (eds) Conservation of Leathercraft and Leather Objects, Procs. ICOM-CC Leathercraft and Related Objects Working Group Meeting, London, 50-53

 

Sully, D. and Suenson-Taylor, K. (1996) ‘A condition survey of glycerol treated freeze-dried leather in long-term storage’ in Roy, A. and Smith, P. (eds) Archaeological Conservation and its Consequences, International Institute for Conservation Copenhagen Congress Preprints, 177-181

 

Sully, D. and Suenson-Taylor, K. (1998) ‘An interventive study of glycerol treated freeze-dried leather’, in Bonnot-Deconne, C., Hiron, X. and Tran, Q. (eds) 7th ICOM Group on Wet Organic Archaeological Materials, conference proceedings, Grenoble, 224-231

 

Swann, J. (1997) ‘Shoe conservation: freeze-drying problems?’ in P.Hallebeek (ed) ICOM Working Group on the Treatment of and Research into Leather, in Particular of Ethnographic Objects, (Interim Meeting, Amsterdam, April 1995) Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage, 34-35

 

Thomson, R. (1998a) ‘Another House, Another Method: Variations in Approach to the Conservation of Gilt Leather’ in Proceedings of Conference, The Impact of Location on Conservation Treatments, SSCR, Dundee

 

Thomson, R. (1998b) ‘The New Leather Conservation Centre, Northampton’, Museum Management and Curatorship 1, 93-104

 

Thomson, R. (2000a) ‘Building a New Centre for Leather Conservation’,  Leather Conservation News 16, 1-7

 

Thomson, R. (2000b) ‘Choices in the Treatments of Gilt Leather Wallhangings’, Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 84, 20-28

 

Thomson, R. (2001) ‘Bookbinding Leather: Yesterday, Today and Perhaps Tomorrow’, Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 85, 66-71

 

Thomson, R. (2002) ‘Conserving Historic Leathers: Saving our Past for the Future’, Journal of the American Leather Chemists’ Association 97, 307-320

 

Thomson, R. (2003) ‘Towards a Longer Lasting Leather: a summary of the CRAFT Leather Project’,  Leather Conservation News (for 2001) 17, 1-9; The Bookbinder 17, 65-70.

 

Turner, R. and Scaife, R. (eds) (1995), Bog Bodies: New Discoveries and New Perspectives, London, British Museum

 

Volken, S. and M. (1995) 'The conservation of a pair of bucket top boots' in Leather Conservation News 11, Minnesota History Center, St Paul, Minnesota, 1-4

 

Volken, M. (2001) ‘Practical Approaches in the Treatment of Archaeological Leather’, in B. Wills (ed) Leather Wet and Dry: Current Treatments in the Conservation of Waterlogged and Desiccated Archaeological Leather, London, 37-44

 

Waterer, J. W. (1972) A guide to the conservation and restoration of objects made wholly or in part of leather, London, G. Bell and Sons

 

Waterer, J. W. (1986) John Waterer's guide to leather conservation and restoration, Museum of Leathercraft, Northampton

 

White, S.J. and Sully, D.M. (1992) 'The conservation of a Siberian parka: a joint approach' in P. Hallebeek; M. Kite and C. Calnan (eds) Conservation of Leathercraft and Leather Objects, procs. ICOM-CC Leathercraft and Related Objects Working Group Meeting, London, 54-7

 

Wills, B. (2000) 'A review of the conservation treatment of a Romano-Egyptian cuirass and helmet made from crocodile skin', The Conservator 24, 80-88

 

Wills, B. (2001)  ‘Excavating desiccated leather: conservation problems on site and after’ in: B. Wills (ed), Leather Wet and Dry: Current Treatments in the Conservation of Waterlogged and Desiccated Archaeological Leather, London, 51-62

 

Wills, B. (ed) (2001) Leather Wet and Dry: Current Treatments in the Conservation of Waterlogged and Desiccated Archaeological Leather, London

 

Wills, B. (2002) ‘Windows into ancient Nubian leatherwork’ in Audoin-Rouzeau, F. and Beyries, S. (eds) Le Travail du Cuir de la Préhistoire à nos Jours, XXIIe rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes, Antibes, Éditions APDCA, 41-64

 

 

Wills, B; Calver, A. and Cruickshank, P. (1987) 'Experimental freeze-drying of ethnographic skins and gut' ICOM 8th Triennial Meeting, Sydney, Australia, Working Group 3, 225-230.

 

Wills, B. and Johnson, C. (1988) 'The conservation of two pre-dynastic Egyptian bodies', Conservation of Ancient Egyptian Materials, UKIC, 79-84

 

Wills, B. and Johnson, C. (1995) 'The conservation of an Egyptian mummy cartonnage cover and mask' in Conservation of Ancient Egyptian Collections, UKIC, 47-55

 

 

Wills, B., Shashoua, Y and Sully, D. (1992) ‘Approach to the conservation of a Mexican saddle and anquera’, Conservation of the Iberian and Latin American cultural heritage, International Institute for Conservation, 23rd Madrid Congress Preprints, 179–83

 

Wouters, J. (1986) 'A comparative investigation of methods for the consolidation of wet archaeological leather. Application of freeze-drying to polyethylene glycol impregnated leather', Leather Conservation News, pp. 5-8