Structure and Analysis




Appleyard, H. M. (1978) Guide to the identification of animal fibres, WIRA, Leeds (second edition)


Bowes, J. H. and Raistrick, A. S. (1961) 'The action of heat and moisture on leather', Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association 56, pp 606-644


British Leather Manufacturer's Research Association (1957) Hides, Skins and Leather under the Microscope, Northampton


British Standards (1968) Methods of sampling and physical testing of leather, BS 3144:1968, London


Brunner, H. and Cowan, B. (1974) The identification of mammalian hair, Melbourne


Calnan, A. C. (1985) Roman Quay at St. Magnus' House - analysis of leather for presence of dyes, Department of Urban Archaeology, Museum of London Archive Report NFW 74


Calnan, C. N. and Haines, B. (eds) (1991) Leather: Its composition and changes with time, Leather Conservation Centre, Northampton


Cameron, E. (1991) 'Identification of skin and leather preserved by iron corrosion products', Journal of Archaeological Science 18 (1) pp 25-33


Daniels, V.D. (1993) Evaluation of a test for tannins in leather, British Museum Conservation Research Section Report 1993/1


Derrick, M. (1992) 'Evaluation of the state of degradation of Dead Sea Scroll samples using FT-IR spectroscopy', Annual Meeting of the Book and Paper Group: Papers Presented in the BPG Speciality Group Session, 18th Annual Meeting of the AIC, Albuquerque, New Mexico


Driel-Murray, C. van (2002) 'Practical evaluation of a field test for the identification of ancient vegetable tanned leathers', Journal of Archaeological Science 29, pp 17-21


Gill-Robinson, H. (1997) 'Piglets in peat - why are they still there after several months?' in Hoffmann, P. ed)  Proceedings of the 6th ICOM Group on Wet Organic Archaeological Materials Conference, Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven, pp. 103-112


Hanacziwskyj, P; Horie, C.V. and Shuttleworth, C.A. (1989) 'Hydrothermal isometric tension apparatus and its application to the study of thermal stability of preserved red deer skin', Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 73, 105-109


Hansen, E.F; Lee, S.N. and Sobel, H. (1991) 'The effects of relative humidity on some physical properties of modern vellum: implications of the optimum relative humidity for the display and storage of parchment',  Book and Paper Group Annual 10, American Institute for Conservation, 84-108


Komanowsky, M. (1992) 'Thermodynamic Analysis of Thermal Denaturation of Hide and Leather', Journal Of the American Leather Chemists Association  87, 52-66


Larsen, R. (1996) 'Environment - Leather Project: deterioration and conservation of vegetable tanned leather' in R. Larsen (ed) Protection and Conservation of European Cultural Heritage, Research Report 6 (EV5V-CT94-0514) The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation, Denmark


Larsen, R; Vest, M. and Kejser, U. (eds) (1994)  STEP Leather Project: Evaluation of the Correlation between Natural and Artificial Ageing of Vegetable Tanned Leather and Determination of Parameters for Standardization of an Artificial Ageing Method, Protection and Conservation of European Cultural Heritage Research Report 1, København: The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation


Larsen, R: Vest, M. and Nielsen, K. (1993) 'Determination of hydrothermal stability (shrinkage temperature) of historical leather by the micro hot table technique', Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 77, 151-156


Leach, B. (1995) 'Tanning tests for two documents written on animal skin' Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 81, pp 241-243


O'Flaherty, F; Roddy, W. and Lollar,  R. (eds) Chemistry and Technology of Leather (4 vols), New York


Mills, J. S. and White, R. (1987) The Organic Chemistry of Museum Objects, London


McLane, A. M. (1985) The identification of mineral preserved skin products, Unpublished dissertation for the Diploma in Archaeological Conservation, University of Durham


Painter, T.J. (1991) 'Lindow Man, Tollund Man and other peat-bog bodies: the preservation and antimicrobial action of sphagnan, a reactive glycuronoglycan with tanning and sequestering properties', Carbohydrate Polymers 15, pp. 123-142


Painter, T.J. (1991) 'Preservation in peat', Chemistry and Industry 17, June, pp. 421-424


Painter, T. J. (1995) 'Chemical and microbiological aspects of the preservation process in sphagnum peat' in Turner, R. C. and Scaife, R. G. (eds) Bog Bodies. New discoveries and new perspectives, London, pp 88-99


Reed, R. (1972)  Ancient skins, parchments and leathers, London


Ryder, M. (1969) 'Remains derived from skin' in Brothwell, D. and Higgs, E. (eds) Science in Archaeology, London, second edition, pp 539-554


Stankiewicz, B. A; Hutchins, J. C; Thomson, R; Briggs, D. E; and Evershed, R. P. (1997) 'Assessment of bog-body tissue preservation by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry', Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 11, pp 1884-1890


Teerink, B. J. (1991) Hair of West European Mammals (atlas and identification key)


Thomson, R. (1991) ‘Surface Coatings and Finishes’ in Leather: Its Composition and Changes with Time, The Leather Conservation Centre, Northampton


Thomson, R. (1995) ‘The Effect of the Thermo-Lignum Pest Eradication Treatment on Leather and Other Skin Products’ in Postprints of Leathercraft Group Meeting, ICOM, Amsterdam


Thomson, R. (1996) ‘Pest Attack on Leather’ in Postprints of Furniture Section Conference, UKIC, London


Thomson, R. (2001) ‘Bookbinding Leather: Yesterday, Today and Perhaps Tomorrow’, Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 85, 66-71


Thomson, R. (2002a) ‘A Survey of Current Bookbinding Leathers: Part 1 Chemical and Physical Properties’, Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 86, 163-170


Thomson, R. (2002b) ‘A Survey of Current Bookbinding Leathers: Part 2 Organoleptic Properties’, Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 86 249-256


Thomson, R. (2003) ‘Towards a Longer Lasting Leather: a summary of the CRAFT Leather Project’,  Leather Conservation News (for 2001) 17, 1-9; The Bookbinder 17, 65-70.


Wildman, A. B. (1954) The microscopy of animal textile fibres, Wool Industries Research Association, Leeds


Woodhead-Galloway, J. (1980) Collagen: the anatomy of a protein, Studies in Biology 117, The Institute of Biology, London


Wouters, J. (1994) 'Tannin and ion analysis of naturally and artificially aged leathers' in R. Larsen (ed) Research Report No.1: STEP Leather Project. Copenhagen: European Commission, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, and The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation, 91-106


Young, G.S. (1990) 'Microscopical hydrothermal stability measurements of skin and semi-tanned leather', in Grimstad, K. (ed), preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 9th Triennial Meeting II, Los Angeles, pp. 626-631


Young, G.S. (1992) 'Collagen fibre research at the Canadian Conservation Institute', Natural History Conservation 7, 13-14


Young, G.S. (1992) 'Loss of infrared linear dichroism in collagen fibres as a measure of deterioration in artifacts of skin and semi-tanned leather' in Vandiver, P.B; Druzik, J. and Wheeler, G.S. eds) Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology 3, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society 267, 859-867


Young, G.S. (1998) 'Thermodynamic characterization of skin, hide and similar materials composed of fibrous collagen', Studies in Conservation 43.2, 65-79